Extensive research has been undertaken by leading academic scholars in the field of ultrasonic technology and its effect on algae control. Research has also been carried out to assess the impact of ultrasonic systems and how they affect the environment, animals and the surrounding ecosystem. Listed below are samples of studies undertaken by numerous universities around the world, which overall provide overwhelming support for the use of ultrasonic devices for algae control.

Ultrasonic Disinfection of Water Suspensions of Escherichia Coli and Legionella Pneumophilia. NWCT/NPT Technical Report. F V Evora and G J Kavarnos (1999).

This study provides scientific evidence suggesting that ultrasound waves can destroy Escherichia Coli (E.coli), and Legionella Pneumophilia (L. pneumophilia), which are pathogenic organisms. This study suggests that ultrasound treatment can be applied to boats or wells to eliminate cateria, viruses or parasites.

Ultrasonic Disinfection of Wastewater Effluents for High-Quality Reusue. Technical University Hamburg, Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering. U. Neis and T. Blume (2002).

Ultrasonic systems were installed to wastewater plants by researchers in this study, who concluded that ultrasound technology is very useful as a pre-treatment and disinfectant in wastewater. They also observed the scientific and economic benefits of ultrasonic treatments compared to traditional methods, such as sand filters.

A new strategy for controlling the growth of cyanobacteria by ultrasound. Water Science Technology 2002; 46 (6-7): 207-15. Institute of Applied Biochemistry University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. Lee TJ, Nakonok K, Matsumura M.

The use of ultrasound technology when controlling the growth of cyanobacteria was studied in a eutrophic lake. Ten prototypes of ultrasonic units were installed in Lake Senba, which is a 32-acre lake in Japan, and the water and sediment quality were recorded over two years. The introduction of the ultrasonic process has indicated that water cyanobacteria could be effectively

Controlling the growth of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) by ultrasound at 20 kHz and 1,7MHz. Originally from: "J. Environ. Eng ".2004 Jun. 39 (6): 1435-46. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Hao H, Wu M, Chen Y, Tang J, Wu Q.

Ultrasonic treatment at high frequencies of 1.7 MHz and low frequencies of 20 kHz have been tested to control the growth of Spirulina platensis with the effectiveness being much greater than at 20 kHz. The biomass of cyanobacteria was reduced by 63% after being exposed by an ultrasound

Growth inhibition of Cyanobacteria by ultrasonic radiation: laboratory and enclosure studies.
Ahn CY, Park MH, Joung SH, Kim HS, Jang KY, Oh HM.

Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-333, Korea.
The growth of Microcystis aeruginosa UTEX 2388 was repressed by ultrasonic radiation and resulted in an increased chlorophyll a content and cell size, suggesting the inhibition of cell division. However, growth was recovered

Ultrasonic irradiation for blue-green algae bloom control.
Lee TJ, Nakano K, Matsumara M.

Institute of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 0006, Japan.
A novel application of ultrasonic irradiation for rapid control of blue-green algae (BGA) bloom was investigated. Potassium iodide (KI) experiments demonstrated that frequency and input power are the major factors that affect the ultrasonic irradiation intensity. Short exposure (3 s) to ultrasonic irradiation

Influence of ultrasonic field on microcystins produced by bloom-forming algae.
Ma B, Chen Y, Hao H, Wu M, Wang B, Lv H, Zhang G.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China.
Under the background of algae removal and growth inhibition by ultrasonic irradiation, the effects of ultrasonic irradiation on removal of Microcystis, the concentration variation of microcystins (MC) produced by Microcystis in

Inactivation of Escherichia coli by ultrasonic irradiation.
Furuta M, Yamaguchi M, Tsukamoto T, Yim B, Stavarache CE, Hasiba K, Maeda Y.

Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570, Japan.
Ultrasonic inactivation of Escherichia coli XL1-Blue has been investigated by

The effect of ultrasound on Escherichia coli viability.
Allison DG, D'Emanuele A, Eginton P, Williams AR.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Manchester, England, UK.
The effect of continuous-wave ultrasound on the viability of Escherichia coli HB101 was assessed using a 20 kHz ultrasonic processor. A standardised cell suspension of fixed concentration was used to investigate the influence of different physical and environmental conditions on ultrasound susceptibility.

Inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by ultrasonic irradiation.
Tsukamoto I, Yim B, Stavarache CE, Furuta M, Hashiba K, Maeda Y.

Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599- 8531, Japan.
We have investigated the inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast cells) by ultrasonic irradiation. The amplitude on the vibration face contacting the sample solution was used as an indication of the ultrasonic power